VERSION II OF NUMBER 11
The poem, Binsey Poplar centres around human relationship with the natural world & the poet uses different poetic devices to convey his literary taxonomy. The use of alliteration, assonance & repetion will be outlined in the subsequent paragraphs –
Alliteration is one of the poetic devices used by Hopkins and the device can be defined as the repetitive use of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of two or more words in close relationship to each other or one another.
Hopkins here uses this excerpt thru his mellifluous language to give the vividness of his aesthetic literary taxonomy & he has succeeded not just bringing out the mental image of the poplars but also bring out the meaning thru his rhymes
The alliterative salient examples are as follow;
(i) Quelled or Quenched in leaves leaping sun ( Q Alliterates)
(ii) of a fresh and following folded rank (F Alliterates)
(iii) shadow that swam or sank (S Alliterate)
(iv) wind wandering wind winding bank ( W Alliterates)
Another poetic device exemplified in the poem ” Binsey Poplar” is assonance which is the repetitive use of the same vowel sounds at the beginning of two or more words in close relationship to each other or one another. Examples of assonance used in the poem are as follow;
Dear, airy, leaves & leaping ( E Assonance)
Assonance is quite similar to consonance & the poet, Hopkins uses this device to draw readers to the poet’s rhythmical pattern.
Repetition is another dominant poetic device used in the poem. Hopkins uses repetition.
The following are repeated for emphasis –
(i) ‘quelled’ lines(1 and 2)
(ii) ‘felled’ line/3/
(iii) ‘not’ line/5/
(iv) ‘we’ line/9/
(v) ‘so’ lines/2/13
(vi) ‘where we(line 6)
(vii) ‘when we’ lines(10 and 18)
(viii) ‘Ten or twelve’ (line 20)
(ix) ‘sweet’ lines (22-24)
(x)….’rural scene’ line/23/
A poem tone is expressed through the attitude of emotional state of the speakers, ‘Do not go gentle into that good night’ has an unusual tone of defiant towards death rather than accepting or resigned. This explains the strong emotions that run through the poem.
The poetic persona urges the listeners to rage, rage against the dying of the light. Rage is repeated for emphasis. It is also used to add taste of urgency to his request. He is desperately trying to appeal or provoke his listeners into finding the strength and audacity that he needs to stand up to death. He also affirms that old age should rave and burn only at the close of the day.
The repetition rate of rage in the poem suggests desperation in the tone of the poet; in additional are anger and defiance. In the poem, the poetic persona portrays his attitude of defying death and encourages his listeners to do same.
The poetic persona is angry at the despondence death brings and he believes strongly that the only way to counter the feeling of death is to defy it.
Jimmy Porter, a twenty five year old man who lives in Britain’s industrial Midlands. Jimmy Porter is an educated young man in post world war II, England. He is a relentless critic of everything around him, acerbic and harmful, sometimes playful and vulgar. His wife, Alison, is his primary target though his good friend Cliff is also subject to Jimmy’s invective. While Cliff Lewis is used an old friend of Jimmy Porter’s, and he frequently endures his friend’s malicious wrath. He shares a similar background to Jimmy as well as his disillusionment with modern England. But, while he often agrees with Jimmy, he also sets himself apart from his friend with his laid back genuine character and more hopeful view of life.
Cliff is particularly fond of Alison Porter and often serves as a protector or buffer between her and Jimmy. Cliff and Alison are remarkably affectionate toward each other, to Jimmy’s amusement and annoyance. Cliff helps Jimmy with the sweet-stall. He spends much of his leisure time in the porters house even though he apparently has a room of his own in the same building.
Cliff Lewis is from the working class like his friend Jimmy. A gentle person, he does not have Jimmy’s fire or his wit but he also lacks his cruelty. He shows his appreciation for Alison’s house keeping efforts and he tries to defend her from Jimmy’s verbal abuse. It is he, not Jimmy who bandaged Alison’s arm after she burns it. Of all the charcoal in the play, Cliff seems to understand best what other people are feeling. Even when helena thought that she hates Jimmy, Cliff guesses that she really desires him and he alone sees through her attempts to break up the marriage.
For Jimmy, while he is capable of occasional tenderness and sensitivity, Jimmy makes life difficult and antagonistic for everyone around him. Jimmy works in a factory tends a sweet stall he is trying to buy and issues diatribes about British society which he feels has denied him opportunity simply because of working class background.
In the poem, the Raiders of the treasure trove’ rage(anger) is given human attributes in the following cases –
(i) In line eleven, Rage is described as a chief(main) robber.
(ii) In line twelve, Rage is being given the human quality of being able to drag ‘rage’.
(Iii) In line /14/, rage is called a ‘thief’ because it can rob someone of his sweetness and joy’ as well as being an ‘Enemy of Equanimity (calmness of the mind).
(iv) Rage is also being given the human attribute of spreading toxic fumes (line 16).
(v) In line seventeen, rage is being described as having the ability of making someone to perceive storm’
(vi) In line twenty one, rage is given the human attribute of setting ‘sail’ and can ruin lag far behind – This simply means that rage (anger) can pull someone greatly progressively.
In conclusion, this is how the poet uses these personification to warn us to run away from rage (anger).
VERSION III OF NUMBER 9
Personification refers to a poetic device that gives human attributes to an inanimate object/animal/abstract quality. This device is predominantly used in stanza 2,particularly lines 11,12,13,14 and 15 where rage is portrayed as a raider who is capable of stripping man of life. Rage us also personified when the persona says that it ‘spreads toxic fumes’ everywhere and ‘drags rags after you’
In this poem, ‘Raider of the Treasure Trove,” the poet describes the destructive tendencies of rage. It begins by stating the ultimate aim of existence, which is to make indelible footprints on the sands of time by influencing and affecting lives positively. While sailing through life, the poet counsels the reader to make a conscious effort to raise the banner of joy high, achieve dreams guided by love and dipped in compassion towards others and, at the same time, spread happiness and bring hope to people anywhere. Thus, the primary aim of life is underscored.
The poet goes further to emphasize rage’s ability to plunder things of utmost value. The poet gives an outline of the destructive impacts of rage. Life in itself is transitory, and rage has the capacity to shorten the existence of man on this planet, thereby puncturing dreams and aspirations. Rage has the c to cut short capacity t anything pleasurable. Though an abstract quality, it is a weapon of massive destruction. Its unseen nature does not p prevent its impacts from being felt immensely. Therefore, the consequence of rage cannot be understated as it also dispossesses man of the beauty of life which consists in “laughter, sweetness and joy. It opposes tranquility and calmness as its nature rejects anything good. Its duty is to pollute the world with harmful contents that are detrimental and threaten man’s peaceful co-existence. Fundamentally, where rage dwells, catastrophe is not miles away as it implies disaster. Hence, the poet gravely cautions human beings against rage.
From the foregoing, the ruinous effects of rage on human beings are stressed. The poem records the horrid byproducts of rage. This is accurately represented in the second stanza of the poem where the poet, without mincing words, provides the portraiture.
Hence , rage is imbued with human attributes ,as it relates the destructive feats achieved by rage, while providing the reader with a vivid image of such destruction.